Every individual has undergone one type or another type of stressful situation one time or several times in their life. When healthy individual use these opportunity for their growth and development the sick or unhealthy personals feels some difficulties or they may need some assistance to adjust with these stress. This condition is known as crisis and the help done too vercome it is known as crisis intervention. Lack of crisis intervention results in adaptation of maladaptive coping mechanisms and improper development of the individual.
DEFINITION – CRISIS “A sudden event that occurs in one‟s life, which disturbs the individual homeostasis, and usual coping mechanisms will not resolve the problem” (Largerquist,2001).
A crisis is defined as a point that requires a change in the usual method of functioning. Thechange requires adaptation, learning and growth.A crisis can refer to any situation in which the individual perceives a sudden loss of his or her ability to use effective problem-solving and coping skills.
Hendricks (1985) suggests that certain individuals are more prone to crisis than others. They are those have;
dissatisfaction with employment or lack of employment
history of unresolved crisis
history of substance abuse
poor self esteem, unworthiness
only superficial relationship with others
difficulty in coping with everyday situations
under utilization of resources and support system
aloofness and lack of caring.Individual personality traits also have to consider with these factors as what is a crisis for one is merely an occurrence for another.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A CRISIS1.
Crisis occurs in all individuals at one time or another and is not necessarily equated with psychopathology2.
Crises are precipitated by specific identifiable events3.
Crises are personal by nature, what may be considered a crisis situation by oneindividual may not be so for another4.
Crises are acute, not chronic, and will be resolved in one way or another within a brief period5.
A crisis situation contains the potential for psychological growth or deterioration.TYPES OF CRISES1)
Maturational or Developmental crisis: Eric Ericson proposed that maturational crises are a normal part of growth and development, and that successfully resolving a crisis at one stage allows the child to move to the next. The child develops positive characteristics after experiencing a crisis. If he or she develops less desirable traits, the crisis is not resolved. Maturational events include events such as leaving home for the first time, completing school or accepting the responsibility of adulthood. The accomplishment of developmental tasks will impact the interpretation of crisis events during the transition of an individual from one stage of life to another.2)
Situational crisis: A situational crisis occurs whenever a specific stressful event
threatens a person‟s bio-psycho-social integrity and results in some degree of psychological disequilibrium. The event can be an internal one, such as a disease process or any number of external threats. A move to another city or a job promotion can initiate a crisis even though they are positive events. If a person enters a new situation without adequate coping skills, a crisis may develop that results in dissonance.3)
Adventitious crisis: it is initiated by unexpected, unusual events that can affect anindividual or a multitude of people. In such situations, people face overwhelminglyhazardous events that may entail injury, trauma, destruction, or sacrifice. Nationaldisasters, violent crimes and natural disasters are examples of this type of crisis.
4) Socio-cultural crisis:Social crisis is one arising from the cultural values that are embedded in the social structure.Eg: The loss of job stemming from discriminatory practices based on age, race, sex, sexualpreference or class is a primary example of a socio-cultural crisis. They type of job lossvarious markedly from job loss due to illness or poor performance, additionally. Crisis thatrelates to deviant acts of others whose behaviour violates social norms, such as robbery, rapeand incest, may be classified as socio-cultural crisis.Crisis from socio-cultural sources are generally loss amenable to control by individuals. Veryoften, cultural views & public social policies may be a component of either the identificationor the resolution of this crisis. Whenever the crisis originates outside the individual, it isusually beyond the ability of the individual alone to control and manage